November 13, 2023
November 13, 2023

A-Z Guide to Fulfillment Centers

What is a fulfillment center, and what are their functions? Learn how automation from AutoStore revolutionizes fulfillment centers from within.


What is an E-Fulfillment Center?

In the fast-paced world of e-commerce, e-fulfillment centers stand as crucial hubs, ensuring quick and reliable delivery for online shoppers. These advanced facilities go beyond traditional warehousing, integrating sophisticated processes for efficient order processing. This guide provides an in-depth look at fulfillment centers, their functions, and their significant role in the supply chain.  

Additionally, the article explores the functionalities of the AutoStore system together with its benefits. Whether you are a business owner or a curious reader, this article aims to demystify the world of fulfillment centers and highlight the innovative technologies driving their success.

Defining e-fulfillment centers

Before diving into the functionalities and benefits of e-fulfillment centers, let’s start with a definition of the topic itself.

An e-fulfillment center is a modern logistics facility uniquely designed to streamline the order fulfillment process for e-commerce businesses. E-fulfillment refers to the complete processing of orders using electronic means, from ordering via the Internet to payment, storage, transportation, delivery of the goods and after-sales.

The key distinction between a fulfillment center and a traditional warehouse lies in their operations and purposes. Traditional warehouses act as long-term storage facilities, housing products for extended periods until they are needed. In contrast, fulfillment centers are hubs of activity, constantly receiving, processing, and dispatching orders with the goal of minimizing the time between when an order is placed and when it is received by the customer at the best cost-benefit ratio possible.

In essence, fulfillment centers are engineered to optimize the supply chain, ensuring that products are not only stored but also processed and shipped out with speed and accuracy. This shift from storage to fulfillment represents a significant evolution in logistics, aligning with the needs of the fast-paced and customer-centric world of online shopping.

A fulfillment center is a modern logistics facility uniquely designed to streamline the order fulfillment process for e-commerce businesses.

Fulfillment centers vs. warehouse distribution centers

Fulfillment centers and warehouse distribution centers are often mistakenly interchanged, so let’s delineate the distinctions between the two.

While both fulfillment centers and warehouse distribution centers are integral to the supply chain, they serve different purposes and operate distinctly. Fulfillment centers are dynamic hubs designed for the quick processing and shipping of online orders, focusing on B2C, B2B, or omnichannel operations. They have historically been faster at employing advanced technologies such as automated storage and retrieval systems such as AutoStore cube storage AS/RS, conveyors, robotic picking, Automated Guided Vehicles (AGVs), Autonomic Mobile Robots (AMRs) and specialized software for stock visibility and predictive analytics.

In contrast, distribution centers are typically larger operations dealing with substantial quantities of goods, often focusing on B2B (business-to-business) orders in large volume. Their functions include cross-docking, bulk distribution, and wholesale, supported by high bay warehouses, stacker cranes, pallet conveyors, and forklifts.

Different types of fulfillment centers

Fulfillment centers come in two main types: third-party logistics (3PL) and in-house.

3PL fulfillment centers are external services handling logistics for businesses, offering expertise, potentially lower costs through volume shipping discounts, and faster shipping through strategic inventory placement. However, businesses might experience less control and potential communication issues.

In contrast, in-house fulfillment centers are managed internally, ensuring complete control, direct communication, and opportunities for custom branding. While advantageous, this option can be resource-heavy, potentially costlier, and may face scalability issues.

The decision between 3PL and in-house depends on a company's size, needs, and resources. Larger companies may prefer in-house for more control and branding, whereas smaller ones might benefit from the scalability and expertise of 3PLs.  

Having explored the different types of centers and their unique operations, let’s take a look into the key functions and operations integral to fulfillment centers.

3PL fulfillment centers are external services handling logistics for businesses, offering expertise, potentially lower costs through volume shipping discounts, and faster shipping through strategic inventory placement.

Key functions and operations in fulfillment centers

Fulfillment centers transform the journey from order placement to delivery into a seamless experience. These facilities are intricately designed to manage a variety of functions and operations, all aimed at optimizing efficiency and ensuring customer satisfaction. These are the main functions of a fulfillment center:

  • Goods receiving and storage: Upon arrival, products from suppliers and manufacturers are meticulously received, sorted, and strategically stored. This stage is crucial for maintaining an organized inventory, and facilitating quick and accurate retrieval when orders are placed.
  • Overstock handling: Fulfillment centers are equipped to manage overstock, ensuring that excess products are efficiently stored and can be easily accessed when needed.
  • Replenishment of systems: Both automated storage/retrieval systems (AS/RS) and manual picking areas are consistently replenished to maintain optimal stock levels and ensure that products are readily available for order fulfillment.
  • Order picking: This pivotal process involves retrieving the required items from their storage locations to fulfill customer orders. State-of-the-art automated systems often significantly improve this process, enhancing speed, accuracy and overall efficiency.
  • Packing operations: Items are meticulously packed, ensuring their security during transit. This step can be automated with advanced packing robotics, enhancing speed and efficiency. This stage may also involve the incorporation of branding elements or promotional materials.
  • Marshaling operations and route preparation: Orders are organized and prepared for shipping, with careful consideration given to optimizing delivery routes. Many fulfillment centers employ sortation technology at this stage, automating the sortation of orders based on criteria such as for example postal codes or urgent deliveries among others.
  • Quality inspections: Rigorous quality checks are conducted to ensure that all items meet the required standards before being dispatched.
  • Loading and shipping: Once quality is assured, orders are loaded onto trucks, lorries, cars or e-bikes, and shipped out. At this stage, many fulfillment centers employ conveyor technology that transports orders directly into the trucks where a worker organizes stacks and organizes the orders. Fulfillment centers maintain partnerships with various courier services, offering a range of shipping options to meet diverse customer needs.  
  • Returns and refunds: In cases of product returns, fulfillment centers manage the inspection of returned items, restocking where possible, and handling refunds or exchanges as required.
  • Inventory management: Real-time tracking of inventory levels is maintained throughout all these processes, ensuring accurate stock levels and helping to prevent issues such as stockouts or overstock situations.  
  • Customer service support: Beyond logistics, some fulfillment centers also take on customer service roles, assisting customers with order inquiries, providing tracking information, and resolving any potential issues that may arise during the order process.

By adeptly managing these diverse functions and operations, fulfillment centers empower e-commerce businesses to swiftly and accurately deliver products, ultimately fostering improved customer satisfaction and loyalty. And speaking of advantages, let’s look into the main benefits of outsourcing fulfillment operations to fulfillment centers.

Many fulfillment centers employ conveyor technology that transports orders directly into the trucks.

Benefits for companies outsourcing fulfillment operations

The digital transformation of supply chains has fundamentally altered business operations and customer purchasing behavior, prompting a shift towards specialized fulfillment centers for order processing and shipping needs. Here's more specifically how the centers contribute to improving customer satisfaction and streamlining the order fulfillment process:  

Digitalization of the supply chain

Fulfillment centers have embraced digitalization, leading to more efficient, transparent, and agile operations. This transformation aligns with modern buyer behaviors, where the shopping journey commences online, and expectations are set for a seamless experience tailored to personal tastes, historical preferences, and customized offers. Fulfillment centers extend this personalized journey beyond the webpage, ensuring that the physical product experience matches the digital anticipation.

Enhancing the product experience

Upon selecting a specialized fulfillment center, businesses ensure that their products are handled with utmost care. Products are picked in pristine condition, with attention to smell, feel, and presentation. The packaging and labeling processes are not just about wrapping a product; they are opportunities to add value and enhance the overall shopping experience.  

Speed and satisfaction

Fulfillment centers play a crucial role in delivering products swiftly, a key factor in customer satisfaction. Fast delivery times, coupled with the ability for customers to track and monitor their orders, build anticipation and excitement, culminating in a satisfying purchase experience. Fulfillment centers ensure that the final touchpoint in the customer journey—the delivery of the product—is executed flawlessly, leaving a lasting positive impression.

A holistic experience

By ensuring every product is selected and delivered with care, fulfillment centers contribute to a holistic shopping experience. They are integral in ensuring that the enthusiasm built during the online shopping journey is maintained right up to the point of delivery. The customer perceives the experience in its entirety, and their likelihood to repeat business is closely tied to their satisfaction with both the fulfillment process and the marketplace platform.  

By choosing a specialized fulfillment center, businesses are ensuring that their products are not just delivered but are presented in a way that enhances the customer experience, from the digital beginnings to the tangible end. This comprehensive approach to customer satisfaction and order fulfillment is what sets successful businesses apart in today's competitive e-commerce landscape.

Now, with a clear understanding of how specialized fulfillment centers can elevate the customer experience, let’s turn our attention to how the AutoStore system is redefining efficiency and precision within the world of fulfillment.  

Fulfillment centers ensure that the final touchpoint in the customer journey—the delivery of the product—is executed flawlessly, leaving a lasting positive impression.

AutoStore: Revolutionizing fulfillment centers from within

AutoStore stands as an example of innovation in the world of fulfillment centers, reshaping the way inventory is stored, managed, and retrieved. This section delves into how the AutoStore system functions as a crucial component of a modern fulfillment center, streamlining operations, and setting new standards of efficiency.  

Maximize your storage density and precision

At its core, AutoStore transforms the traditional fulfillment center model with its cubic Grid system, wherein inventory Bins are meticulously stacked vertically, maximizing storage density and minimizing wasted space. Robots navigate on top of the Grid, swiftly accessing and retrieving Bins that are then brought to a warehouse workstation (Port) where a human worker picks and fulfills the orders. This not only speeds up the order fulfillment process but also ensures significantly more efficient use of space within the fulfillment center.

Let technology meet human expertise

As mentioned above, the human aspect of fulfillment is not overlooked. Workstations, or Ports, are the juncture points where technology meets human expertise. Here, operators retrieve items from Bins brought forth by the Robots. The delivery of Bins to Ports is so fast that the human worker never has to wait for the next Bin to be delivered. The design of these workstations prioritizes ergonomic efficiency, ensuring that the human component of the order fulfillment process is both swift and comfortable.  

Customize as you grow

A defining feature of AutoStore within a fulfillment center is its scalability. As a business grows and its inventory needs expand, the system can be seamlessly augmented with an extended Grid, added Bins or additional robots, without any disruption to existing operations. This modular approach ensures that the fulfillment center can adapt and grow without the need for complete overhauls or significant downtime.

Control data and information

AutoStore integrates seamlessly with existing Warehouse Management Systems (WMS) via a comprehensive Application Programming Interface (API), ensuring a smooth flow of information and control. This integration is flexible, offering different levels of control based on the needs of the fulfillment center, from the Task Interface that handles high-level job planning to the Bin Interface that provides granular control over bin sequences and job assignments at each port.  

Future-proof fulfillment centers with AutoStore

By embedding AutoStore within its operations, a fulfillment center is effectively future-proofing its operations. The system's design ensures that as the world of commerce evolves, with increased demand for speed, precision, and efficiency, the fulfillment center can evolve as well, maintaining its competitive edge.

In conclusion, AutoStore functions as a vital organ within modern fulfillment centers, encapsulating the essence of innovation in inventory management. Its space-efficient design, coupled with robotic precision and seamless integration, not only enhances the capabilities of a fulfillment center but also ensures its relevance and efficiency well into the future.  

Case: Read how Puma increased capacity 10x with AutoStore  

It’s clear that innovations like AutoStore represent the future of fulfillment centers, but the industry as a whole is rapidly evolving. Let's delve deeper into the upcoming challenges and opportunities in intralogistics and retail, and how businesses can navigate these to stay competitive.  

By embedding AutoStore within its operations, a fulfillment center is effectively future-proofing its operations.

The future of fulfillment centers: Intralogistics and retail challenges  

The landscape of fulfillment centers is rapidly evolving, driven by innovations in intralogistics and shifting retailer perspectives. Companies aiming to remain competitive must adapt to these changes, adopting flexible, tailored solutions and rethinking their approach to customer engagement and service. Below are some future perspectives of fulfillment centers:

From the intralogistics point of view

The intralogistics industry is experiencing unprecedented growth, with a pressing demand for modular, flexible, and standard yet customized solutions. Companies like AutoStore are at the forefront of this transformation, offering adaptable structures that allow businesses to start small and expand as needed. This flexibility is crucial, especially given the uncertainties in market demand and automation sizing.  

Future expansions in fulfillment centers can be seamless. For instance, AutoStore's system enables additional Robots and picking Ports to be integrated without disrupting operations. Even extending the aluminum Grid, a significant structural change, can be done while maintaining ongoing activities, ensuring no downtime or loss in productivity.

From the retailer’s point of view

Retailers face the challenge of bridging the gap between their operations and the end consumer. To reduce delivery times and last-mile expenses, businesses must establish fulfillment centers closer to densely populated areas. However, this comes with its own set of challenges, such as the scarcity and high cost of warehousing spaces.

Innovative solutions like Automatic Micro Fulfillment Centers (MFCs) and Darkstores are becoming viable options, repurposing existing spaces to serve the growing e-commerce demand. These centers not only address space constraints but also offer a strategic advantage in SKU (Stock Keeping Unit) management, allowing retailers to provide a wider product selection and faster delivery options.  

Labor challenges and the need for enhanced customer experiences further complicate the retailer's journey. Traditional distribution centers, often located far from urban areas, are facing workforce shortages. In contrast, fulfillment operations within the city, though easier to staff, must balance the needs of in-store shoppers and e-commerce demands. MFCs and Darkstores offer a solution, creating dedicated spaces for online order fulfillment without disrupting the in-store experience.

Micro Fulfillment Centers (MFCs) and Darkstores are becoming viable options, repurposing existing spaces to serve the growing e-commerce demand.

Overcoming challenges and embracing the future

The future of fulfillment centers is undeniably tied to the ability to offer flexible, scalable solutions that meet the changing demands of the market. Companies must embrace these innovations, integrating advanced intralogistics solutions and rethinking their retail strategies to bring fulfillment operations closer to the end consumer.  

Addressing urbanization, space constraints, SKU growth, and labor challenges will require a holistic approach, blending technology and strategic planning. At the same time, enhancing the customer experience remains paramount. Whether through faster delivery times, broader product selections, or seamless returns processes, the ultimate goal is to create a fulfillment ecosystem that not only meets but exceeds customer expectations, securing market share and driving future growth.


In summary, the transformation of fulfillment centers is pivotal in today’s rapidly evolving retail landscape, with AutoStore exemplifying innovation in space efficiency and automation. Fulfillment centers are adopting more adaptable and scalable solutions to meet changing demands, integrating technology like AutoStore, and reimagining their operations to enhance efficiency and customer satisfaction. As the industry navigates challenges related to urbanization, space constraints, and labor, the future of fulfillment centers will depend on their ability to embrace innovation, optimize operations, and consistently exceed customer expectations.

If that's not motivating enough for you and your business to start optimizing your supply chain, we don’t know what is.  

Get in touch with our experts


What does a fulfillment center do?

A fulfillment center handles inventory storage, order processing, packing, and shipping on behalf of a business, ensuring that customer orders are fulfilled efficiently and accurately.  

What is the difference between a warehouse and a fulfillment center?

A warehouse primarily serves as a storage space for inventory, while a fulfillment center takes on a more active role in picking, packing, and shipping products as part of the order fulfillment process.

What are examples of fulfillment centers?

Examples of fulfillment centers include Amazon Fulfillment Centers, Shopify Fulfillment Network, and third-party logistics (3PL) providers like ShipBob and Fulfillment by FedEx. These facilities offer a range of services to support the order fulfillment process for e-commerce and retail businesses.

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